It was not until the night of the 21st, that André was picked up by Joshua Smith and taken to meet with Arnold. The British believed that the Americans would not dare to execute a British Adjunct General. John André, (born May 2, 1750, London, England—died October 2, 1780, Tappan, New York, U.S.), British army officer who negotiated with the American general Benedict Arnold and was executed as a spy during the American Revolution (1775–83). However, he did not attempt to pass the blame onto Arnold. Major John Andre’s memorial in Westminster Abbey was erected in 1782. His mother died in Bath on 22nd February 1813 aged 91. Thirty-year-old British Major John Andre is hanged as a spy by U.S. military forces in Tappan, New York, on October 2, 1780. At the moment, therefore, when suddenly he came in view of the gallows, he involuntarily started backward, and made a pause. Only Paulding could read and Arnold was not initially suspected. All were honoured in the names of counties in Ohio, and in 1853 a monument was erected to their memory on the place where they captured André. – from a letter written by Washington to Colonel. I have just witnessed his exit. The day before his hanging, André drew a likeness of himself with pen and ink, which is now owned by Yale College. In 1779, he assumed oversight of secret intelligence for the British army and opened contact with American traitor Maj. Gen. Benedict Arnold. Andre was later captured, convicted, and hanged as a spy. Capture of Major John André, by A. C. Warren (artist), 1856. Major Andre is no more among the living. His records on the British perspectives during some of the battles in which he fought has been considered a very reliable resource for historians. André wanted to move fast and go all night, but on the 22nd , they ran into some New York militia men who convinced them to stay the night with them and move on in the morning. [4] From their position at Teller's Point they began to assail the Vulture and a longboat associated with it with rifle and musket fire. A pension was awarded by the British to his mother and three sisters not long after his death, and his brother William André was made a baronet in his honour in 1781 (see André baronets). With the capture of John André and his death by hanging, part of the history of the 3d Dragoons comes to an end. John was born on September 30, 1974 at Doylestown Hospital in Doylestown, PA and was currently living in Schenectady, NY. According to Tallmadge's account of the events, he and André conversed during the latter's captivity and transport. "Why this emotion, sir?" However, I was struck by the deep and controlling relationship between Andre and his mother as well as the 1770 love triangle that caused the family considerable embarrassment. Full online access to this resource is only available at the Library of Congress. an account written about John André hanging as a spy in October 1780. André wanted to know how he would be treated by Washington. Alexander Hamilton wrote of him: "Never perhaps did any man suffer death with more justice, or deserve it less." British spy, Major John Andre, is sentenced to death . Everyone believed that Arnold should have been the one to die because of his treason and that André just happened to be in the wrong place at the wrong time. John André Letter to Henry Clinton, September 29, 1780. André thought that they were Tories because one was wearing a Hessian soldier's overcoat. John attended Our Lady of Mount Carmel School in Doylestown and then graduated from Dubois High School in Dubois, WY, class of 1993. He was briefly engaged to Honora Sneyd. Sir Henry Clinton, the British commander in New York, did all that he could to save André, his favourite aide, but refused to surrender Arnold in exchange for him, even though he personally despised Arnold. John Andre -- handsome, artistic, beloved by the Loyalists, admired by Washington... a spy brave and cunning... convinced Benedict Arnold to sell out West Point... hanged at age 31. Please see our full announcement here. So soon, however, as he perceived that things were in readiness, he stepped quickly into the wagon, and at this moment he appeared to shrink, but instantly elevating his head with firmness he said, "It will be but a momentary pang," and taking from his pocket two white handkerchiefs, the provost-marshal, with one, loosely pinioned his arms, and with the other, the victim, after taking off his hat and stock, bandaged his own eyes with perfect firmness, which melted the hearts and moistened the cheeks, not only of his servant, but of the throng of spectators. John Andre was born into a wealthy Swiss family in London in 1750. Arnold escaped, but André was  to be tried as a spy. Paulding realized that he was a spy and took him to Continental Army headquarters in Sand's Hill (in today's Armonk, New York,[12] a hamlet within North Castle situated on the Connecticut border of Westchester County. After a court martial composed of senior generals of the Continental Army, Major John Andre, who had been captured on a mission to Major General Benedict Arnold who was about to betray West Point to the British, was executed on October 2, 1780. Fast Facts: Major John Andre Among these guests was a significant figure: Major John Andre. André, according to witnesses, placed the noose around his own neck. Jameson did not want his army career to be wrecked later for having wrongly believed that his general was a traitor. He was promoted to captain in the 26th Foot on 18 January 1777, and to major in 1778. At the oars were two brothers, tenants of Smith's who reluctantly rowed the boat six miles on the river to the sloop. André wore his uniform so that he would not be taken for a spy. None of these men knew Arnold's purpose or suspected his treason; all were told that the purpose was to do good for the patriot cause. They both believed that André would not see any more Americans past this point and that he would safely make it to the British lines. General Greene is president of the courts-martial trial for captured spy, Major John André. Grey's descendants returned Franklin's portrait to the United States in 1906, the bicentennial of Franklin's birth. Mixed method, 1783. The 1798 play André, based on Major André's execution, is one of the earliest examples of American tragedy. He was a great favorite in colonial society, both in Philadelphia and New York, during those cities' occupation by the British Army. The Unfortunate Death of Major Andre (Adjutant General of the English Army) at Head Quarters in New York, Octr. The Unfortunate Death of Major John André, by John Goldar (engraver), after William Hamilton (painter), for Edward Barnard’s The New, Comprehensive, Impartial and Complete History of England… (London, 1783). Washington was further irritated to find that Arnold had breached protocol by not being about to greet him. He therefore insisted on sending a note to Arnold informing him of the entire situation. until further notice, 909 S. University Ave. What is interesting about the story of John Andre is that he didn’t die in battle; he was actually hanged as a spy by the Americans when he tried to gain their surrender at West Point, New York. Therefore, he had to relent for the evening. André was held prisoner. The rope being appended to the gallows, he slipped the noose over his head and adjusted it to his neck, without the assistance of the awkward executioner. The Trial and Death of Major Andre. The men, finding the papers from Arnold on him, took André to North Castle, where Lt. Col. Jameson was in command. Pausing to secure more aid, Peterson and Sherwood headed to Fort Lafayette at Verplanck's Point to request cannons and ammunition from their commander Col. James Livingston. In that respect, André’s death truly is unfortunate. The fate of Major André : a letter from Alexander Hamilton to John Laurens by Hamilton, Alexander, 1757-1804; Laurens, John, 1754-1782. John Andre’s body hung in silence for thirty minutes before being taken down. It was re-dedicated in 1880 and today is located in Patriot's Park on U.S. Route 9 along the boundary between Tarrytown and Sleepy Hollow in Westchester County. When Washington read the letter, he asked for the Court of Inquiry to study the incident and decide whether André was acting as a spy. – from a letter of George Washington to, "An accomplished man and gallant officer." In April 1779 John André was placed in charge of the British Secret Intelligence. Major John Andre (May 2, 1750–Oct. At this point Benjamin Tallmadge returned to North Castle from scouting and, being very suspicious of these goings-on, sent a letter with the found papers to Washington . Andretti was Aldo Andretti’s son and Mario Andretti’s nephew. While they were gone, a small boat furnished by Arnold was steered to the Vulture by Joshua Hett Smith. André rode on in safety until 9 a.m. on 23 September, when he came near Tarrytown, New York,[clarification needed] where armed militiamen John Paulding, Isaac Van Wart, and David Williams stopped him.[9][10]. There, Arnold gave André papers of West Point, which revealed the placement of troops and other compromising information. He had a lively and pleasant manner and could draw, paint, and create silhouettes, as well as sing and write verse. Andre, an accomplice of Benedict Observing his servant enter the room in tears, he exclaimed, "Leave me till you can show yourself more manly!" [1] He was educated at St Paul's School, Westminster School, and in Geneva. Arnold met André on the shore near Haverstraw, NY and they went back to Smith’s house, behind American lines, to talk. To aid André's escape through U.S. lines, Arnold provided him with civilian clothes and a passport which allowed him to travel under the name John Anderson. No one wanted him to die, but Washington had to be firm and did not back down. A major in the British army, he was held in esteem as an officer and a … Their repulsion of the British sloop effectively stranded André on shore.[5][6][7][8]. By appointment only André could not give up his disguise, because all of his negotiations had been in secret. We do not know exactly what happened in this encounter because of conflicting stories, but André is recorded as having said, “I was taken by three volunteers who, not satisfied with my pass, rifled me and, finding papers, made me a prisoner” (Van Doren, 340). He and Peggy met often in social settings and were believed to be particularly close. This stranded André. Andre was hanged as a spy at noon on October 2, 1780. It was a tragical scene of the deepest interest. During his confinement and trial, he exhibited those proud and elevated sensibilities which designate greatness and dignity of mind. André was moved from Headquarters, to West Point, and finally to Tappan, where he was housed in a tavern. [28], British Army officer during the American Revolutionary War, Head of British Secret Service in America, NOTE: The capture occurred in the area of present day, Dictionary of British Sculptors 1660-1851, Rupert Gunnis, Intelligence in the American Revolutionary War, "Pounds Sterling to Dollars: Historical Conversion of Currency", "Commemorating the Defense of Teller's Point", Local History: British Agent Detained in Tarrytown, Executed in Rockland, "Benedict Arnold, John André, and His Three Yeoman Captors: A Sentimental Journey or American Virtue Defined", "The Capture of Major John André" by A.C. Warren (1856), Letters from André, including coded interchange between André and Arnold, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=John_André&oldid=1000142021, 18th-century executions by the United States, 18th-century executions by New York (state), British Army personnel of the American Revolutionary War, British military personnel killed in the American Revolutionary War, British spies during the American Revolution, Huguenot participants in the American Revolution, People executed by the United States military by hanging, Articles with unsourced statements from January 2020, Articles using NRISref without a reference number, Articles lacking reliable references from November 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from May 2019, Wikipedia articles with RKDartists identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, "He was more unfortunate than criminal." General Washington convened a board of senior officers to investigate the matter. Henry Clinton Papers. [23] In 1804 a memorial plaque by Charles Regnart was erected in the Grosvenor Chapel in London, to John's memory. I was so near during the solemn march to the fatal spot, as to observe every movement, and participate in every emotion which the melancholy scene was calculated to produce. It was placed carefully in a simple open coffin crudely painted black. Ann Arbor, MI 48109-1190. An hour or so later, Washington arrived at West Point with his party and was disturbed to see the stronghold's fortifications in such neglect, part of the plan to weaken West Point's defenses. Cray, Robert E. Jr., "Major John Andre and the Three Captors: Class Dynamics and Revolutionary Memory Wars in the Early Republic, 1780–1831", This page was last edited on 13 January 2021, at 20:02. A relief on the front shows Washington receiving Andre’s petition for death by firing squad, while Andre is led off for execution. At first, all went well for André since post commandant Lieutenant Colonel John Jameson decided to send him to Arnold, never suspecting that a high-ranking hero of the Revolution could be a turncoat. On this day in history, September 29, 1780, British spy Major John Andre is sentenced to death by hanging for his role in the Benedict Arnold treason affair. Library of Congress, Prints and Photographs Division. He betrayed no want of fortitude, but retained a complacent smile on his countenance, and politely bowed to several gentlemen whom he knew, which was respectfully returned. Andre was arrested and hanged as a spy in New York on 2nd October 1780 and buried there. The brothers finally agreed to row after threats by Arnold to arrest them. There was a trust  between sides that generals would be taken as prisoners and not executed. If  André was disguised to look like a spy, he would be captured as a spy. The Clements Library is open by appointment only for U-M faculty, students, and staff. Heartman Collection cdl; americana Digitizing sponsor MSN Contributor University of California Libraries Peggy Shippen, wife of the infamous traitor Benedict Arnold, conspired with her husband to undermine the American colonists’ fight for independence from Great Britain. He also asserted that, as a prisoner of war, he had the right to escape in civilian clothes. [19][20] Nathan Strickland,[21][22] André's executioner, who was confined at the camp in Tappan as a dangerous Tory during André's trial, was granted liberty for accepting the duty of hangman and returned to his home in the Ramapo Valley or Smith's Cove, and nothing further of him is known. John André (2 May 1751[1][unreliable source?] The principal guard officer, who was constantly in the room with the prisoner, relates that when the hour of execution was announced to him in the morning, he received it without emotion, and while all present were affected with silent gloom, he retained a firm countenance, with calmness and composure of mind. The Death of John André John André Letter to Henry Clinton, September 29, 1780. I have just witnessed his exit. 2, 1780, who was found within the American lines in the Character of a Spy, 1783. There, as the verdict was decided that André was acting as a spy by going behind enemy lines and disguising his uniform, he wrote a courageous letter, dated September 29, 1780, to his Commander, General Henry Clinton. Jameson, not sure what to do, first sent a letter onto Arnold, his commander, concerning the situation. "[15], Glover was officer of the day at André's execution. There he admitted who he really was. Something he had wanted to avoid from the very beginning. 2, 1780) was a British intelligence officer during the American Revolution. The painting now hangs in the White House.[2]. In April of that year, he took charge of British Secret Service in America. It consists of a sarcophagus with the figure of a mourning Britannia (the female personification of Britain) and a sad-looking lion on top. Instantly recovering his composure, he said, "I am reconciled to my death, but I detest the mode." Not a murmur or a sigh ever escaped him, and the civilities and attentions bestowed on him were politely acknowledged. "We do," was the answer. The Americans wanted to trade, but the British would not do it, knowing what would happen to Arnold. André was born on 2 May 1750 in London to wealthy Huguenot parents Antoine André, a merchant from Geneva, Switzerland, and Marie Louise Girardot from Paris, France. [24] In 1821, at the behest of the Duke of York, his remains, which had been buried under the gallows, were removed to England[25] and placed among kings and poets at Westminster Abbey, in the nave, under a marble monument depicting Britannia mourning alongside a British lion over André's death. It was added to the National Register of Historic Places in 1982.[27]. This extended account of the luckless major’s last moments* is from the pen of Continental Army surgeon James Thacher. This would expose André to all of the hazards of ordinary secret agents. The trial lasted four weeks and ended in acquittal for lack of evidence. Colonel Scammel now informed him that he had an opportunity to speak, if he desired it; he raised the handkerchief from his eyes, and said, "I pray you to bear me witness that I meet my fate like a brave man." The wagon being now removed from under him, he was suspended, and instantly expired; it proved indeed "but a momentary pang." 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