Re: How to filter a grid using native features of delphi Really .FilterText property is just a textual representation of the applied filter, but it was my attempt. 5 main characteristics for a real Smart Grid. Title XIII of this bill provides a description, with ten characteristics, that can be considered a definition for Smart Grid, as follows: "It is the policy of the United States to support the modernization of the Nation's electricity transmission and distribution system to maintain a reliable and secure electricity infrastructure that can meet future demand growth and to achieve each of the following, which together characterize a Smart Grid: (1) Increased use of digital information and controls technology to improve reliability, security, and efficiency of the electric grid. [106], Boulder, Colorado completed the first phase of its smart grid project in August 2008. Largest in apparent scale among these are intermittent energy sources, with the Smart Grid’s ability to influence the demand of electricity within the grid allowing greater penetration of power generation utilizing wind or solar. [116] According to the Boston Globe, the plan "unfairly targeted low-income customers and circumvented Massachusetts laws meant to help struggling consumers keep the lights on". Smart grids are, by their very nature, designed to be flexible and able to adapt to any difficulties that may arise with power distribution. The Smart Grid can reduce our carbon footprint and give us more choices about how we use our energy. While the AC power control standards suggest powerline networking would be the primary means of communication among smart grid and home devices, the bits may not reach the home via Broadband over Power Lines (BPL) initially but by fixed wireless. It covers generation, transmission, distribution, storage, and end-use. The Smart Grid also cooperates with new and currently emerging technologies. Additionally is the increase in data collection bringing many new possibilities for technology companies as deploying transmission grid sensors at a user level and balancing system reserves. The worldwide power loss including theft is estimated at approximately two-hundred billion dollars annually. HECO will give customers incentives for reducing power consumption within 10 minutes of a notice.[130]. [60], Solar Cities - In Australia, the Solar Cities programme included close collaboration with energy companies to trial smart meters, peak and off-peak pricing, remote switching and related efforts. Smart meters measure and analyze electricity usage, constantly communicate the data they collect to central locations, and, differentiating them from past technologies, are capable of two-way communication with the grid as a whole, influencing and being influenced by other components in the Smart Grid. Smart grid is referred to by other names including “Smart Electric Grid,” “Smart Power Grid,” “Intelligrid,” and “Future Grid” [1]. Dynamic game-theoretic frameworks have proved particularly efficient at storage scheduling by optimizing energy cost using their Nash equilibrium.[20][21]. ", Integrated communications: Areas for improvement include: substation automation, demand response, distribution automation, supervisory control and data acquisition (. Nevertheless, one possible categorization is given here. While traditionally load balancing strategies have been designed to change consumers' consumption patterns to make demand more uniform, developments in energy storage and individual renewable energy generation have provided opportunities to devise balanced power grids without affecting consumers' behavior. "Electricity Grid in U.S. Penetrated by Spies", https://doi.org/10.1109/CCIS.2014.7175721, "Sector Resilience Report: Electric Power Delivery", "Analysis of the Cyber Attack on the Ukrainian Power Grid", "New Lloyd's study highlights wide ranging implications of cyber attacks", "Transforming the Nation's Electricity System: The Second Installment of the Quadrennial Energy Review", https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Ning_Lu4/publication/224110557_Smart-Grid_Security_Issues/links/0f31752dab2b75c231000000.pdf, "Transmission System Operation and Interconnection", "Sandia SCADA Program High-Security SCADA LDRD Final Report", "Detecting Power Theft by Sensors and the Cloud: Awesense Smart System for the Grid", "Building for the future: Interview with Andres Carvallo, CIO — Austin Energy Utility", Demanding standards: Hydro One aims to leverage AMI via interoperability, Massachusetts rejects utility's prepayment plan for low income customers, http://publicservice.vermont.gov/topics/electric/smart_grid/eenergyvt, "China Smart Grid Playbook: Should we steal a page or two? This could mean making trade-offs such as cycling on/off air conditioners or running dishwashers at 9 pm instead of 5 pm. This paper basically focused on the Smart Grid (SG) technology. [12] Some experiments used the term broadband over power lines (BPL), while others used wireless technologies such as mesh networking promoted for more reliable connections to disparate devices in the home as well as supporting metering of other utilities such as gas and water. "Subcommittee Hearing on "Blackout! October 02, 2020. Siting of hydro-electric dams in mountain areas also strongly influenced the structure of the emerging grid. These are in addition to their primary functions of eliminating the need for human meter reading and measuring the time-of-use of electricity. This system can act remotely on network incidents, improving our supply and our relationship with the environment. Here is a selection of the types of analyses that have appeared in recent years. When businesses and consumers see a direct economic benefit of using energy at off-peak times, the theory is that they will include energy cost of operation into their consumer device and building construction decisions and hence become more energy efficient. IEC TC 57 has created a family of international standards that can be used as part of the smart grid. The total load connected to the power grid can vary significantly over time. T1 - Enabling Smart Grid Features by Enhanced Utilization of Actual Advanced Metering Infrastructure. The bulk of smart grid technologies are already used in other applications such as manufacturing and telecommunications and are being adapted for use in grid operations.[32]. The market study on the global Industrial Smart Grid market will encompass the entire ecosystem of the industry, covering major regions namely North America, Europe, Asia Pacific, South America, Middle East & Africa, and the major countries falling under those regions. Metering technology is the foundation upon which Smart Grids function. Designed to allow real-time contact between utilities and meters in customers' homes and businesses, there is a risk that these capabilities could be exploited for criminal or even terrorist actions. [4] Policy in the United States is described in 42 U.S.C. [90] As such, the U.S. Department of Energy has prioritized research and development to decrease the electric grid's vulnerability to cyberattacks, citing them as an "imminent danger" in its 2017 Quadrennial Energy Review. Electric power systems can be classified in multiple different ways: non-linear, dynamic, discrete, or random. LIFE Factory Microgrid (LIFE13 ENV / ES / 000700) is a demonstrative project that is part of the LIFE+ 2013 program (European Commission), whose main objective is to demonstrate, through the implementation of a full-scale industrial smartgrid that microgrids can become one of the most suitable solutions for energy generation and management in factories that want to minimize their environmental impact. [citation needed], Some features of smart grids draw opposition from industries that currently are, or hope to provide similar services. [28] Others, such as Silver Spring Networks[29] or Google,[30][31] are data integrators rather than vendors of equipment. The GridWise Alliance is a consortium of public and private electricity sector stakeholders, providing a forum for idea exchanges, cooperative efforts, and meetings with policy makers at federal and state levels. This is undoubtedly a massive boon for energy providers, but also raises some significant security issues. If smart grids are deployed fully across the US, the country expects to save USD 130 billion annually.[84]. substations are used to transform voltage at several times in many locations, that providing safe and reliable delivery of energy. It could have an immediate effect on transportation infrastructure, as traffic lights and other routing mechanisms as well as ventilation equipment for underground roadways is reliant on electricity. [8], Monitoring and synchronization of wide area networks were revolutionized in the early 1990s when the Bonneville Power Administration expanded its smart grid research with prototype sensors that are capable of very rapid analysis of anomalies in electricity quality over very large geographic areas. Rapid fluctuations in distributed generation, such as due to cloudy or gusty weather, present significant challenges to power engineers who need to ensure stable power levels through varying the output of the more controllable generators such as gas turbines and hydroelectric generators. 0018602. A 2003 United States Department of Energy study calculated that internal modernization of US grids with smart grid capabilities would save between 46 and 117 billion dollars over the next 20 years if implemented within a few years of the study. The Telegestore project is widely regarded as the first commercial scale use of smart grid technology to the home, and delivers annual savings of 500 million euro at a project cost of 2.1 billion euro.[12]. Its starting point is the California OpenADR standard. [91] Hackers have the potential to disrupt these automated control systems, severing the channels which allow generated electricity to be utilized. The architecture also provides a living laboratory for assessing devices, systems, and technology. The power grid has been described in this context as well. NIST, the National Institute of Standards and Technology, is one of the driving forces behind standards development with its Smart Grid Interoperability Panel. "[141], Historical development of the electricity grid, Peak curtailment/leveling and time of use pricing, Provision megabits, control power with kilobits, sell the rest, IT companies disrupting the energy market, Create alliances with new entered technology companies, Yih-Fang Huang; Werner, S.; Jing Huang; Kashyap, N.; Gupta, V., ". Because power and communications companies are generally separate commercial enterprises in North America and Europe, it has required considerable government and large-vendor effort to encourage various enterprises to cooperate. • Maintain and improve the existing services efficiently. Here the goal is to develop a winning strategy. The amount of data required to perform monitoring and switching one's appliances off automatically is very small compared with that already reaching even remote homes to support voice, security, Internet and TV services. The improved flexibility of the smart grid permits greater penetration of highly variable renewable energy sources such as solar power and wind power, even without the addition of energy storage. Under the Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 (EISA), NIST is charged with overseeing the identification and selection of hundreds of standards that will be required to implement the Smart Grid in the U.S. Specific points of opposition or concern include: While modernization of electrical grids into smart grids allows for optimization of everyday processes, a smart grid, being online, can be vulnerable to cyberattacks. In this scenario, blockchain technology, with its excellent features, makes it a promising application for the smart grid paradigm. The intercommunications that enable them to survive are highly complex. Appropriately, the benefits gained by utilities go on to positively affect customers. Demand response support allows generators and loads to interact in an automated fashion in real time, coordinating demand to flatten spikes. The paper gives an overview into the features and paradigms of a smart energy city in the framework set for the evolution of existing cities and their transformation to smart cities. Network Topology and Redundancy. As a result of the pilot, the Scottish and Southern Energy (SSE) said it would connect up to 30 commercial and industrial buildings in Thames Valley, west of London, to a demand response program. The metering capabilities of the 1960s grid meant technological limitations on the degree to which price signals could be propagated through the system. 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