His father, Charles XI, had been the ruler of Sweden for 4 decades and was known as an excellent king. Upon the death of Charles XIII in 1818, Charles John ascended to the throne. - 1705?) Having successfully fought off the Danes, he returned to Stockholm and engaged in correcting the country's neglected political, financial, and economic situation. [17] Paul Barras, one of five directors, was cautious that Napoleon would overturn the Republic, so he appointed Bernadotte commander-in-chief of the Italian Army in order to offset Napoleon's power. Charles XI died on 5 April 1697, in his forty-first year. He was born Prince Carl Ludwig Eugen of Sweden, Duke of Skåne, on May 3, 1826, at the Royal Palace of Stockholm, the eldest child of King Oscar I of Sweden and Josephine of Leuchtenberg.He had four younger siblings: Barton, Sir Dunbar Plunket (1930). [124] This play was so popular that the idea that King Charles XIV John had a tattoo reading "Death to kings" is often repeated as fact, although there is no basis to it. He suddenly found himself alone and under great pressure. Hedwig Eleonora's ostensible indifference to politics came as a great relief to the lords of the guardian government. [4] Bernadotte's promotions came both from the esteem of his commanders as well as from his men; having been elected to the rank of lieutenant colonel and colonel by his men, though he refused both nominations in favor of traditional advancement. [15] Charles was dependent on his mother and advisors to interact with the foreign envoys since he had no foreign language skills apart from German and was ignorant of the world outside the Swedish borders. It meant that any land or object previously owned by the crown and lent or given away – including counties, baronies and lordships – could be recovered. Since 1634, it had been mandatory for the king to take advice from the council. The King solved the situation by switching the priests, giving the poor priest the lavish living condition and a church the King was certain he would rebuild. Charles devoted the rest of his life to avoiding further warfare by gaining larger independence in foreign affairs, while he also promoted economic stabilization and a reorganization of the military. [97], In 1813, he allied Sweden with Napoleon's enemies, including the UK, Russia and Prussia, in the Sixth Coalition, hoping to secure Norway. [4][23], Victory at the Battle of Halmstad (17 August 1676), when Charles and his commander-in-chief Simon Grundel-Helmfelt defeated a Danish division, was the king's first glimmer of good luck. [10] In this capacity, as well as during his later command of the army of northern Germany, he created for himself a reputation for independence, incorruptibility, moderation, and administrative ability. [30], Sweden's weak economy had suffered during the war and was now in a deep crisis. He was initially popular in both countries. [33][17], However, during the campaign against Prussia, in the same year, he was severely reproached by Napoleon for not participating with his army corps in the battles of Jena and Auerstädt (14 October 1806). [17], During the campaign of 1805, Bernadotte, with his army corps from Hanover formed into the I Corps, commanded the Left Wing of the Grand Army overseeing Marmont's II Corps and having the majority of the Bavarian Army attached to his command; some 65,000 men or 1/4th of the Army. Here he beheld his four-year-old son for the first time. In the legend he is referred to as the Greycoat (Swedish: Gråkappan). Charles XIV & III John, also Carl John, Swedish and Norwegian: Carl Johan (26 January 1763 – 8 March 1844) was a Swedish monarch. 105–06, Hedvig Elisabet Charlotta, Hedvig Elisabeth Charlottas dagbok. 257–58, Barton, Sir Dunbar Plunket (1930). (2020) "A Queen's Fortune: A Novel of Desiree, Napoleon, and the Dynasty that outlasted the Empire." In May 1676, they invaded Scania, taking Landskrona and Helsingborg, then proceeding through Bohuslän towards Halmstad. Another trait was a deep religious devotion: he was God-fearing, frequently prayed kneeling and attended sermons. [17] In November of the same year he was made commander of the army of observation on the upper Rhine. Chandler, David G. (1987) Napoleon's Marshals. At the Battle of Wagram (5 July 1809), he entered battle with his Saxon corps, to which the division of Dupas was attached and which formed his reserve. The rule of Rutger von Ascheberg (governor-general 1680–1693), proved more lenient. However, when news arrived of the Swedish defeat at the Battle of Fehrbellin, Danish king Christian V declared war on Sweden that September. His remaining 20 years on the throne were the longest peacetime of the Swedish Empire (1611–1718). In April 1800, despite his Republican sympathies, Bernadotte was offered, and freely accepted, from April 1800 to 18 August 1801, the post of Commander-in-Chief of the Army of the West in the rebellious Vendée where he successfully restored its tranquility. Instead Ulrika Eleonora predeceased him by almost four years. [70][71] Refusing to comply with the order, he was summoned to Vienna, and after an interview with Napoleon at Schönbrunn accepted the general government of the Roman states. He appeared ignorant of the very rudiments of statecraft and almost illiterate. Her personal merits and continued charitable acts throughout her tenure endeared her to the Swedish people and eased some of the difficulties brought on by her Danish background. As a consequence, Bernadotte's I Corps was too far away to take part in the Battle of Eylau (7 to 8 February 1807). Sweden reluctantly declared war against the UK but it was treated by both countries as being merely nominal, although Swedish imports of British goods decreased from £4,871 million in 1810 to £523 million in the following year. Bernadotte, struggling desperately to prevent his men from sacking, was given six horses from the Council of Lübeck as their appreciation. [93] To render it the more insulting, Napoleon scheduled it for the Crown Prince's birthday. ~ ThriftBooks: Read More, Spend Less Charles XV of Sweden, Carl XV, King of Sweden 1859-1872 (and of Norway as Carl IV) Carl XVI Gustaf of Sweden , Carl XVI Gustaf, King of Sweden from 1973 Carl, Prince of Sweden circa 1182, son of King Sverker II of Sweden or Sweartgar II Resting on the French Left, Bernadotte's corps was battered during the night but resisted the full fury of the Austrian attack facing superior numbers. His efforts culminated in the favourable Treaty of Kiel, which transferred Norway to Swedish control. [128], Désirée Clary's relationshios with Bonaparte and Bernadotte were the subject of the novel Désirée by Annemarie Selinko. This was a trick; played upon him by Sieyès and Roger Ducos, the directors allied to Napoleon. The events that shook Europe and that gave her back her freedom are known. We Charles, by the Grace of God King of Sweden, the Goths and the Vends, Grand Prince of Finland, Duke of Scania, Estonia, Livonia and Karelia, Lord of Ingria, Duke of Bremen, Verden and Pomerania, Prince of Rügen and Lord of Wismar, and also Count Palatine by the Rhine, Duke in Bavaria, Count of Zweibrücken–Kleeburg, as well as Duke of Jülich, Cleve and Berg, Count of Veldenz, Spanheim and … However, his dynasty never faced serious danger, as the Swedes and the Norwegians alike were proud of a monarch with a good European reputation. 1. [17] Accounts of Bernadotte's role at Wagram are contradictory. [46], The marriage produced seven children, of whom only three outlived Charles:[47]. In his farewell note to Bernadotte on his way to Italy, Napoleon wrote: "I am going to fling myself once more into the hazards of war. Napoleon rebuked him for his absence but it became acknowledged that it was not due to Bernadotte, but Berthier's carelessness in dispatching the orderly. [37][38] In fact, he did what he had been ordered to do, and more fundamental responsibility for his absence rests upon the ambiguous and indirect orders issued by Berthier and Napoleon's unawareness of the Prussian position. Alm, Mikael; Johansson, Brittinger (Eds) (2008). The hostility of Poland and the breakup of Russia involved him in overseas contests for the possession of Livonia and Ingria, the Polish–Swedish War (1600–1611) and the Ingrian War, while his pretensions to claim Lappland brough… The assembly has been described as one of the most important held by the Riksdag of the Estates. He was actually the third Swedish king called Charles. 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